Adult Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited condition caused by a defective gene which causes the body to produce abnormally thick and sticky fluid, called mucus. This mucus builds up in the breathing passages of the lungs and in the pancreas, the organ that helps to break down and absorb food. This collection of sticky mucus results in life-threatening lung infections [...]

Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis, commonly known as a runny nose, or when due to pollen exposure, “Hay Fever” is the medical term describing irritation and inflammation of the nose. This results in a variety of symptoms including runny nose, sneezing, stuffy nose, sore throat, itching of the nose, mouth and eyes, as well as tearing of the eyes. An allergen is something [...]

Allergy Shots (Immunotherapy)

Immunotherapy, also known as “allergy shots” is a way of making the body less sensitive to specific substances known as allergens. With reduced sensitivity comes a reduction in your allergy symptoms. Allergic sensitivity is determined by allergy skin tests, or blood tests. This information is used to determine which allergens contribute to your reactions. Mixtures of these allergens are then [...]


Asthma is a condition whereby an individual develops inflammation of the airways (bronchial tubes). This results in narrowing of the airways and the development of asthma symptoms including shortness of breath, chest tightness, wheeze and cough. Asthma affects 5 to 7% of the population of the United States. During asthma attacks (exacerbations of asthma), the smooth muscle cells in the [...]

Chronic Cough

A chronic cough is one that has persisted for more than 8 weeks. There is a very large number of diagnoses that can cause a chronic cough, but only a handful cause most of the problems. These include chronic bronchitis from cigarette smoking, post nasal drainage, asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Your MLA physician is experienced in the evaluation and [...]

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to chronic bronchitis and emphysema two commonly co-existing diseases of the lungs in which the airways (bronchial tubes) become narrowed. This leads to a reduction of the flow of air to and from the lungs causing shortness of breath. Unlike in asthma, the reduced airflow is poorly reversible and usually worsens over time. COPD [...]

Flexible Bronchoscopy

Bronchoscopy is a procedure used to visualize the inside of the airways (bronchial tubes). It is used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The bronchoscope is a flexible instrument that is inserted into the airways, usually through the nose or mouth. It has both a light source and digital camera at its end. This allows the physician to examine the [...]

Insect Sting Allergy

Allergic reactions to flying stinging insects -honeybees, hornets, wasps and yellow jackets – are relatively common. The severity of an insect sting reaction varies from person to person. A normal reaction will result in pain, swelling and redness confined to the sting site. A large local reaction occurs in 10-15%, and will result in swelling that extends beyond the sting [...]

Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs)

Pulmonary function tests are a group of tests that measure how well the lungs take in and release air and how well they move gases such as oxygen from the atmosphere into the body’s circulation. Pulmonary function tests are done to: The most commonly performed test is called “spirometry.” With this test you will breathe into a mouthpiece that is [...]

Shortness of Breath

Shortness of breath, known as “Dyspnea” (pronounced disp-nee-ah) is a debilitating symptom that is the experience of unpleasant or uncomfortable respiratory sensations. It is a common symptom of many medical disorders, particularly those involving the cardiac and respiratory systems. Shortness of breath on exertion is the most common complaint for people with respiratory impairment. Importantly, shortness of breath is a [...]

Sleep Disorders

Sleep medicine is a medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of sleep disturbances and disorders. Sleep disorders are widespread and can have significant consequences for affected individuals as well as economic and other consequences for society. The National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research estimates that 40 million Americans suffer from chronic sleep disorders and another 20 to 30 [...]


Thoracentesis (also known as a pleural tap) is a procedure to remove fluid or air from the pleural space. The pleural space is an area between the lung and the chest wall that usually contains just a thin layer of fluid. At times, air or more commonly fluid can collect in this space. If there is enough fluid, a patient [...]